Foremothers of Black Women's Community Organizing in Toronto

  • Marcia Wharton-Zaretsky
Keywords: African Canadians, National Congress of Black Women, Toronto,


This essay examines the nature of Black women's activism from 1950 to 1990 in Toronto, Ontario, as revealed in the oral testimony of Rella Braithwaite, Penelope Hodge, and Aileen Williams about the histories of the Canadian Negro Women's Association and the National Congress of Black Women of Canada. Black women's activism was crucial to the economic and political advancement of Black people in Toronto, and organizations developed by Black women activists contributed to nation-building in Canada.